A large amount of literature has been developed on the so-called “Resource Curse” hypothesis, which suggests that natural resource abundant countries tend to have slower growth rates than resource-poor countries (Sachs and Warner 1997, 2001). However, another branch of the literature rejects this theory and proposes that the long-run relationship between these variables is ambiguous, since it actually depends on institutional quality (Mehlum et al 2006; Tornell and Lane 1999). This line of thought argues that institutions could encourage private agents to deviate their inputs to unproductive rent-seeking activities, which might counteract the contribution of resource rents if the institutional framework is not strong enough.
Los dos mercados de exportación del gas natural boliviano son Brasil y Argentina, el primero gestado durante los últimos treinta años y el segundo activado el año 2004 y consolidado posteriormente[^1]. El hecho es que a las personas que nos dedicamos a este sector nos gusta analizar las estadísticas y, de esta forma, intentar dilucidar una realidad que muchas veces escapa a nuestras manos.
It is not news that Latin America’s exports depend heavily on commodities. Particularly, The Pacific Alliance (TPA) countries exports are also concentrated in commodities, hence have a significant exposure to price volatility of these products, affecting direct and indirectly key macroeconomic variables such as economic growth, inflation, interest rates, etc. According to World Bank data, Chilean exports of copper represent 55% of total exports; in Peru copper and gold together are 41.3%; meanwhile in Colombia exports of oil and coal stand by 51.5%. The story in Mexico is a bit different, exports are much more diversified and maybe less reliant on commodities. The importance of these products in total Mexican exports rounds 18%. Nevertheless, commodities exports are important because of fiscal revenues, the Federal Government of Mexico gets 20% of total income from oil production.
Marie Curie was one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman to receive this honor twice for her contributions to two separate fields. She was undeniably a giant. Nonetheless, it is less known that despite her achievements she was denied membership to the French Academy of Sciences because she was a woman. A lot has transpired and evolved since this sordid incident in 1911. However, glass ceilings constraining the role of women in the advancement of science persist.